Optical devices, a new approach:



  • David Hockney, Secret Knowledge: Rediscovering the Lost Techniques of the Old Masters (London: Thames & Hudson, 2001).
  • Jonathan Crary. Techniques of the Observer: on Vision and Modernity in the Nineteenth Century. (Cambridge: MIT, 1990).
  • Philip Steadman, The Vermeer’s Camera (Oxford University Press, 2002)
  • CABEZAS, Lino. “Las máquinas de dibujar. Entre el mito de la visión objetiva y la ciencia de la representación” in GÓMEZ MOLINA, Juan José, coord. Máquinas y herramientas de dibujo. (Madrid: Ed. Cátedra, 2002).
  • KEMP, Martin. La ciencia del arte. De Bruneleschi a Seurat. (Madrid: Ed. Akal, 2000).


  • Art-Optics. «The Hockney-Falco Theory» web site. The web site of Charles M. Falco, physicist and one of the David Hockney’s collaborators.
  • Vermeer’s camera. The web site of Philip Steadman’s book.

Media Archaeology:



«(…) the media archaeological approach has two main goals: first, the study of the cyclically recurring elements and motives underlying and guiding the development of media culture. Second, the «excavation» of the ways in which these discursive traditions and formulations have been «imprinted» on specific media machines and systems in different historical contexts, contributing to their identity in terms of socially and ideologically specific webs of signification. This kind of approach emphasizes cyclical rather than chronological development, recurrence rather than unique innovation.»

From Kaleidoscomaniac to Cybernerd. Towards an Archeology of the Media, by Erkki Huhtamo

«Media archaeology is introduced as a way to investigate the new media cultures through insights from past new media, often with an emphasis on the forgotten, the quirky, the non-obvious apparatuses, practices and inventions. (…) it is also a way to analyse the regimes of memory and creative practices in media culture – both theoretical and artistic. Media archaeology sees media cultures as sedimented and layered, a fold of time and materiality where the past might be suddenly discovered anew, and the new technologies grow obsolete increasingly fast».

From What is Media Archaeology? by Jussi Parikka.

Web Sites:



  • Parikka, Jussi. What is Media Archaeology? Polity Press. Cambridge-Maden, 2012.
  • Huhtamo, Erkki & Parikka, Jussi (eds). Media Archaeology. Approaches, Applications, and Implications. University of California Press. Berkeley-London, 2011.



  • Exhibition: Máquinas de mirar. Centro Andaluz de Arte Contemporáneo, Sevilla 17 Septiembre 2009 – 10 Enero 2010
  • Exhibition: Eyes, lies and illusions. Hayward Gallery, London, 7 October 2004 – 3 January 2005.